Solar Equipment for Solar Wafer, Solar Cell and Solar Module Production.
A typical silicon solar cell consists of a photoactive p/n junction formed on the surface, a front ohmic contact stripe and fingers, a back ohmic contact that covers the entire back surface, and an antireflection coating on the front surface.
For silicon solar cell production either poly-crystalline or mono-crystalline material is used. Poly-crystalline silicon for photo-voltaic applications is normally produced by casting methods while mono-crystalline silicon is prepared in a Czochralski growing process.
The poly-crystalline or mono-crystalline ingots are cut to wafers. Poly-crystalline material is mostly cut to square wafers, while mono-crystalline material is used to produce round wafers. In many cases square material with rounded edges is prepared from round wafers in order to get a denser packing of the solar cells in the solar module.
Manufacturing of solar cells can be devided in 4 sections:
Manufacturing of the starting material can be done only by the large silicon manufacturers and is therefore not explained on this page in detail. All further manufacturing steps are described below. You can receive more detailed information for many productions steps by following the links in the text..
Solar Wafer Manufacturing
|Czochralski crystal growing (mono-crystalline)
and ingot casting (poly-crystalline)
of p-doped, Boron-containing Silicon
|Cutting of columns
using a wire saw
|Wafer sawing using a wire saw.
A complete block can be cut at a time.
Solar Cell Manufacturing
for increasing the surface and increasing the light absorption
|n-doping with phosphorus (POCl3) and diffusion in a
for formation of the photo diode and p/n-junction
|PSG-etching with hydrofluoric acid HF
for removal of the surface oxide
|Anti reflection coating ARC with Si3N4
for improving the light incidence angle
|Contact formation by printing metal paste on the cell, using a screen printing machine.
On the front side silber fingers are formed while the backside is covered completely with an aluminum layer.
|Firing Furnace for metal film hardening.|
Solar Module Manufacturing
|Tabbing and stringing|
|Layup on the glass and interconnecting, bussing|
|EVA sheet and back sheet loading|
|Edge taping and module framing|
|Testing and Packing|
In order to setup a continuous production line, of course a lot of automation equipment is necessary also.
The company is Crystec can offer many types of machine for this application, new or used. For solar module manufacturing, we can even offer a complete turn-key production line. Please send us your project requests and details!